Hydrogen sulphide scavenger
As the world’s first manufacturer of the triazine molecule, Vink Chemicals has a deep understanding of the state-of-the-art technology of triazines. Furthermore, Vink Chemicals has responded to evolving market needs with a new option: stabicor® S100, an innovative non-triazine-based hydrogen sulphide (H2S) scavenger that offers outstanding performance at low doses for greater cost-efficiency.
The various challenges that Stabicor S100 deal with include:
- Providing complete protection against H2S for multiphase systems
- Ensuring efficacy across a wide temperature range, from sub-zero (high viscosity/poor pumpability) to up to 350°C (thermostability)
- Meeting diverse needs for free/low water content for various applications
- Fate of the reaction products (post-addition)
- Efficient H2S scavenging with conventional products generally requires a surplus of H2S scavenger
Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB)
Sulphate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) are bacteria (SRB) and archaea that obtain energy through anaerobic respiration, by “breathing” sulphate rather than molecular oxygen (O2) under anaerobic (oxygen-free) conditions.
Sulphate-reducing bacteria can be traced back 3.5 billion years and are considered among the oldest forms of microorganisms on Earth. Certain SRB species can tolerate temperatures exceeding 90°C and pressures of over 100 bar.
SRB’s main nutrients are simple organic acids and molecular hydrogen (H2) from decomposing natural organic matter. These nutrients are oxidized, and sulphate (SO42-) is reduced to sulphide (hydrogen sulphide, H2S). The H2S produced by SRB can have a disastrous impact. It contaminates gas and oil, promotes the precipitation of ferrous sulphide (which can subsequently plug injection wells), and is one of the leading causes of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC).
Effective control of SRB can prevent the formation of H2S, extend the operational life of the system, and greatly reduce the incidence of microbiological issues.
The presence of hydrogen sulphide in crude oils
Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) occurs naturally in many of the world’s crude oils. It is also formed during the refining process through the degradation of sulphur-containing compounds at high temperatures. Globally, the average sulphur content of crude oils processed at petroleum refineries continues to rise.
Refineries and storage facilities, such as tank farms, are likely to encounter H2S related problems with the handling of different crude oils, intermediates, and refined products.
Many different heavy oils, including crude oil, residual fuel and gas oil, typically have high concentrations of H2S. The high levels of H2S in heavy oils cause great concern especially when these products are to be stored for an extended period of time or need to be transported. Moreover, while safety remains the primary concern, H2S can create additional challenges for these facilities.
Properties of hydrogen sulfide
- Oveview about risks of hydrogen sulfide
- Hydrogen sulphide reacts with metal ions to form metal sulphides, which can be considered salts of hydrogen sulphide
- When hydrogen sulphide reacts with Fe2+, iron sulphide, a black-coloured solid, can precipitate
- Hydrogen sulphide is highly toxic
- Dihydrogen monosulfide
- Dihydrogen sulfide
- Stink damp
- Sulfur dhydride
- Sulfur hydride
- Sulfureted hydrogen
Effects on humans